a field-theory motivated approach to computer algebra

Manual pages

Every algorithm and every property has a manual page with examples, which you can view online here, or by pressing F1 in the Cadabra notebook interface when your cursor is located on an algorithm or property name. Consider this the "dry" version of the documentation: to-the-point, but not very useful if you do not have an understanding of the big picture yet.

For a more introductory description of the basics of Cadabra, you may be better off first reading or skimming through the tutorials or the Cadabra book.


Cadabra comes with various add-on packages, which can be imported in the usual Python way with import. Their content is listed below.

Simple access to component expressions
get_component Extract a single component from an expression.
remove_zero_components Remove all components of an expression that are equal to zero.
components_to_subrule Turn a component expression (the result of a \texttt{evaluate
Manipulating equations, inequalities and similar expressions
eq_to_subrule Create substitution rule from an equation.
multiply_through Multiply all terms by the same factor.
add_through Add a factor to both sides of an equation.
apply_through Apply an operator through both sides of an equation.
get_lhs Return left-hand side of an expression
get_rhs Return right-hand side of an expression
swap_sides Swap the left and right-hand sides of an expression.
get_factor Get all multiplicative factors of term in node
get_basis_component Returns the multiplicative coefficients of \texttt{basis
to_rhs Move the indicated term of the expression to the right-hand side.
to_lhs Move the indicated term of the expression to the left-hand side.
isolate Isolates a term on the left hand side of an equation or inequality
Manipulating Trace objects
combine_traces Combine separate trace nodes into one sum.
Plotting of functions
plot Plot a function of one variable given the range.
plot3d Plot a function of two variables given their ranges.
Numeric evaluation of Cadabra expressions
evalf Evaluate an expression to a floating point number
lambdify Create a Python function which evaluates an expression with the given parameters
Functions for numeric integration and numeric solutions to differential equations
integrate_ode Numerically integrate a system of ODEs over a range of values
Core general relativity package, mainly a library of various standard expressions.
riemann_from_christoffel Generates an equality which determines the Riemann tensor in terms of the Christoffel symbols.
christoffel_from_metric Generates an equality which determines the Christoffel symbols in terms of the metric.
riemann_to_ricci Convert contractions of Riemann tensors to Ricci tensors or scalars.
Use SymPy calculus functionality on Cadabra expressions.
diff Differentiate an expression with respect to one or more variables.
integrate Integrate a definite or indefinite integral.
limit Take the limit of an expression.
series Construct a Taylor series.
factor Factorise an expression
Access to Sympy solver functions.
dsolve Solve (system of) ordinary differential equation(s).
linsolve Solve a linear system for unknowns.
nonlinsolve Solve a system of non-linear equations.
Helper functions to aid development, debugging and testing
class Algorithm Base class for user defined tree-traversal algorithms
algo Decorator for creating tree-traversal algorithms
time_algo Simple function to time the execution of an algorithm with given inputs.
CadabraTestError Exception derived from AssertionError raised by testing functions when an assertion fails
test_algo Decorator to aid defining unit tests for algorithms.
inherit_kernel Find a kernel in the stack.
Additional functionality to deal with indices
all_index_positions Generate all possible combinations of covariant and contravariant indices
replace_index Rename indices
get_indices Return a list of all indices inside \texttt{Node
get_dummy_indices Return a list of all dummy indices inside \texttt{Node
get_free_indices Return a list of all free indices inside \texttt{Node
symmetrise_slots Symmetrise or antisymmetrise an expression in the given slots
Helper functions for working with ExNode objects
n_indices Return the number of first-level indices a node has
nth_index Gets the nth index of an ExNode object
n_args Returns the number of first-level arguments a node has
nth_arg Gets the nth first-level argument of an ExNode object
arg_tuple Returns a tuple containing the first n arguments of an ExNode object
n_children Returns the number of first-level children a node has
nth_child Gets the nth first-level child of an ExNode object
child_tuple Returns a tuple containing the first n children of an ExNode object
empty_sum Returns an Ex object with just one \textbackslash sum node with no children
empty_product Returns an Ex object with just one \textbackslash product node with no children
Determining semantic properties of nodes
is_relational_operator Returns True for $=$, $<$ and $>$ nodes
is_relational_expression Returns True for expressions which contain a top node which is a relational operator and exactly two children

Core algorithms

Aasym Anti-symmetrise or symmetrise an expression in indicated indices or arguments
Ccanonicalise Bring a tensorial expression to canonical form by re-ordering indices.
collect_factors Collect identical factors in a product.
collect_terms Collect identical terms in a sum.
combine Combine two consecutive indexbracket objects
complete Complete a set of substitution rules to cover related objects.
Ddecompose Decompose a tensor monomial on a given basis of monomials.
decompose_product Decompose a product of tensors by using Young projectors.
distribute Distribute factors over sums.
drop_weight Drop terms with given weight
Eeinsteinify Raise or lower indices of pairs which are both upper or lower.
eliminate_kronecker Eliminate Kronecker delta symbols.
eliminate_metric Eliminate metrics by raising or lowering indices.
eliminate_vielbein Eliminates vielbein objects.
epsilon_to_delta Replace a product of two epsilon tensors with a generalised delta
evaluate Evaluate components of a tensor expression.
expand Write out products of objects with implicit indices.
expand_delta Expand generalised Kronecker delta symbols
expand_diracbar Simplify the Dirac bar of a composite object.
expand_power Expand powers into repeated products
explicit_indices Make indices explicit on an expression with implicit indices.
Ffactor_in Collect terms in a sum that differ only by given pre-factors.
factor_out Isolate common factors in a sum of products
fierz Perform a Fierz transformation on a product of four spinors
Iintegrate_by_parts Integrate by parts away from the indicated expression
Jjoin_gamma Work out the product of two generalised Dirac gamma matrices.
Kkeep_weight Keep terms with indicated weight
Llower_free_indices Make all free indices in an expression subscripts.
lr_tensor Compute the tensor product of two Young tableaux
Mmap_sympy Map Sympy algorithms to Cadabra expressions
meld Combine terms when allowed by symmetries.
Nnevaluate Numerically evaluate an expression.
Pproduct_rule Apply the Leibnitz rule to a derivative of a product
Rraise_free_indices Make all free indices in an expression superscripts.
reduce_delta Simplify a self-contracted generalised delta.
rename_dummies Rename dummy indices, within a set or from one set to another.
replace_match Put the result of a sub-computation back into the original expression
rewrite_indices Rewrite indices by contracting with vielbein or metric.
Ssimplify Simplify the scalar part of an expression.
slot_asym Anti-symmetrise or symmetrise an expression in indicated index slots
sort_product Sort factors in a product
sort_spinors Sort Majorana spinor bilinears
sort_sum Sort terms in a sum.
split_gamma Split a Dirac gamma matrix off a generalised product of gamma matrices.
split_index Split the range of an index into two subsets
substitute Generic substitution algorithm.
Ttake_match Select a subset of terms in a sum for further computations.
Uuntrace Take objects out of traces
unwrap Move objects out of derivatives, accents or exterior products.
Vvary Generic variation algorithm for functional derivatives.
Yyoung_project_product Project all tensors in a product with their Young tableau projector.
young_project_tensor Project tensors with their Young projector.
Zzoom Only show selected terms in a sum, and restrict subsequent algorithms to these terms.

Core properties

AAccent Turn a symbol into an accent.
AntiCommuting Make objects anti-commuting.
AntiSymmetric Make an object anti-symmetric in all indices.
CCommuting Make components commuting.
CommutingAsProduct Makes an object behave as a product when commuting.
CommutingAsSum Makes an object behave as a sum when commuting.
Coordinate Declare a symbol to be a coordinate label.
DDAntiSymmetric Gives object the symmetries of the derivative of a fully antisymmetric tensor.
Depends Makes an object implicitly dependent on other objects.
Derivative Declare an operator to satisfy the Leibnitz rule.
Determinant Declares an object to be the determinant of a matrix or metric.
Diagonal Declares a tensor to only have non-zero diagonal entries.
DiracBar An accent representing the Dirac conjugation operation.
EEpsilonTensor A fully anti-symmetric tensor with constant components.
TTableau A Young-tableau object with unlabelled boxes.
GGammaMatrix A generalised generator of a Clifford algebra.
IImplicitIndex Indicates that an object carries indices which are not written out.
IndexInherit Make an object inherit all indices from its child objects.
Indices Declare names to be used as indices.
Integer Indicates that an object takes integer values.
InverseMetric Make a two-tensor an inverse metric.
KKroneckerDelta Turns an object into a generalised Kronecker delta symbol.
LLaTeXForm Changes the way in which expressions are displayed.
MMetric Makes a two-tensor a metric.
NNonCommuting Makes components non-commuting.
PPartialDerivative Makes an object a partial derivative.
RRiemannTensor Make an object a Riemann curvature tensor.
SSatisfiesBianchi Make an object satisfy the generalised Bianchi identity.
SelfAntiCommuting Make components of tensors anti-commute.
SelfCommuting Make tensor components commute.
SelfNonCommuting Make tensor components non-commuting.
SortOrder Set sorting order of objects.
Spinor Declares an object to transform as a spinor.
Symbol Make an object not count as index when it is a sub- or super-script
Symmetric Make an object symmetric in all indices.
TTableau A Young-tableau object with unlabelled boxes.
TableauSymmetry Gives a tensor a generic Young tableau symmetry.
WWeight Attach a labelled weight to an object
WeightInherit Make object inherit weights from child nodes
Copyright © 2001-2024 Kasper Peeters